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火车模型设计制作标准(北美HO比例)

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发表于 2013-6-12 19:46:32 |显示全部楼层
火车模型自第一辆市场化的中国火车模型上市至今,已经在我国发展了近15年。越来越多的火车模型品牌在国内出现,同时在各种标准下生产设计的火车模型层出不穷。国内火车模型标准不统一(国车、欧车及美车),不同的产品相互之间兼容性存在很多困难,也一直是玩家头疼的问题,

在此,海子铁路网获得NMRA的授权,与大家一同分享NMRA HO火车模型标准。
在介绍国外积累的经验同时,也期待与大家一同交流,规划出适合中国国车的HO比例火车模型标准。

NMRA简介:
在1930年之前,并没有建立铁道模型设备的共同标准,因此A公司生产的铁道模型产品不一定可以与B公司的产品搭配使用。许多模型制造厂商建立自己的标准或仅依据他们自己的设计与想法制造产品,然而大多数的情况下,期望自己的车厢或车头可以毫无问题地运转在别人的轨道上是非常困难的。例如车厢与车厢之间的连结器就有许多不同的标准,唯有损坏模型进行改造才有可能让不同制造商生产的车厢连结运转。国际铁道模型协会(NMRA)于1935年成立的原因,即是为了聚集铁道模型玩家、制造商、出版商共同研商结束这种混乱状况的对策,发展NMRA标准的目的就是为了确保不同制造商的模型车厢、车头、轨道、设备均可以毫无困难地相互搭配使用。



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发表于 2013-6-12 19:47:34 |显示全部楼层
The primary purposes of NMRA STANDARDS are to establish the broadest correlated set of limiting dimensions, electrical parameters, and communications parameters within which interchange may be assured. This definition includes the intricacies involved in the Track-Wheel relationship for each scale defined. It is not the specific purpose of the NMRA STANDARDS to set production dimensions or tolerances but rather to set limits which manufacturers can use when setting their tolerances. When used to determine manufacturing tolerances care must be taken to ensure that the production dimensions are not at the extreme edge of the range specified. Specific NMRA Tech Notes supplement the standards to provide additional guidance.
The scale names, proportions and track gauges are provided in S-1. S-2 provides standards for couplers. S-3 and S-4 provide the critical wheel and track dimensions to ensure reliable operation
S1, S3, and S4 are subdivided into three classes: Proto Scales, Standard Scales, and Scales with Deep Flanges. The purpose of this division is to provide standards for the three general classes of scale model railroading.
To ensure interchange and reliable performance, NMRA STANDARDS S-3 and S-4 are designed so that Track and Wheels constructed within prescribed limits will meet the following related conditions. These conditions closely parallel prototype practices. Many of the various dimensions provided are strongly related to each other and care must be taken to meet each of the specifications provided.
1. TRACK Gauge (G in S-3) is the distance between railheads of two Stock (running) Rails of a length of Track.
  • Straight (tangent) track should be laid as close to the minimum limit of Track Gauge as practical.
  • Curved track may increase Track Gauge as curve sharpness increases, with such increase applied with care lest the wheel is inadequately supported by the railhead, and side sway of equipment is exaggerated.
  • Three-point track gages should be constructed so as to fulfill these requirements.
  • For turnout construction, the track should be laid as close to the minimum gauge as possible between the point of the frog and the running rails.
2. TRACK CHECK GAGE (C in S-3) is the distance from the flange side of a Guard Rail to the flange side of the Frog it guards. WHEEL CHECK CAGE (K in S-4) is the distance from the Back of the flange of one wheel to the tread-side of the flange of the other wheel of a wheelset.
  • Maximum Wheel Check Gage should not exceed the minimum Track Check Gage so that Guard rails will protect the Frog. See Fig. 1.

S1-1_1.jpg


3. SPAN (S in S-3) is the distance between flange sides of the Guard and Wing Rails at the guarded Frog. BACK-to-BACK (B in S-4) is the distance between the Backs of the wheel flanges in a wheelset at railhead height.
  • Maximum Span should be less than the minimum Back-to-Back distance.
4. FLANGEWAY WIDTH (F in S-3) is the distance between flange sides of the Wing and Frog Rails.TIRE WIDTH (N in S-4) is the distance between the Back of the wheel flange at railhead height and the outer edge of the wheel tread.
  • Maximum Flangeway Width at the point of the Frog should be less than half the minimum Tire Width to ensure the wheel tread riding the Wing Rail across the intersection of the flangeways until it is supported by the Frog Point Rail. See Fig. 2.
  • Guard Rail Flangeway Width is limited at its maximum only by Track Gage and Check Cauge (G and C).
  • Guard Rail Flangeway Width is limited at its minimum only by the Span and Check Gauge (C and S). Optimal operation is obtained by keeping the flangeway F close to its maximum.

S1-1_2.jpg


5. FLANGE CLEARANCE (H in S-3) is the vertical distance from the railhead to the highest obstruction below it.
FLANGE DEPTH (D in S-4) is the vertical distance from the root of the flange to its outer edge.
  • Minimum Flange Clearance should not be less than the maximum Flange Depth.
6. SWITCH POINT SPREAD (P in S-3) is the distance from the Gage Line of the closed Point Rail to the outside of the open Point Rail. See Fig 3.
  • Maximum Spread (mechanical) should not exceed the sum of minimum Back-to-Back plus minimum Flange Width (Bmin + Tmin) to prevent interference. This is specified as P (mechanical)
  • For best operation the Point rail and the Stock rail should always have the same polarity as this prevents electrical short circuits within the turnout. For turnouts where the Point and Stock rails may have opposite polarities a Maximum Spread (electrical) is provided. The Maximum Spread (electrical) is normally 6.a. above minus 0.005".

S1-1_3.jpg

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发表于 2013-6-12 19:54:09 |显示全部楼层
                                                                                                                                                [size=11.000000pt]Proto: Scale is an alternative Track and Wheel system that faithfully reproduces the actual wheel tread profile andtrack work used by the Association of American Railroads and the American Railway Engineering Association.Developed by the Model Railway Study Group in Great Britain in 1966, their Protofour was later translated intopopular American model scales. Proto:Scale modeling requires larger minimum radius than standard scale(traditional) track work, so is not for everyone. It is not compatible with existing HO, S or O scale, even thoughthe track gage and model scale is the same as HO and S, nor is it meant to replace them. Proto: Scale is formodelers who want total realism in their track work and equipment. Wheels and track built to Proto:Scalestandards should be clearly labeled as such to avoid interchange issues. For more information please see TechNote: TN-1.1.2.


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[size=11.000000pt]


                                                                                                                                                [size=11.000000pt]Fine: Scale is an alternative Track and Wheel system that tries to come close to the actual wheel tread profile andtrack work used by the Association of American Railroads and the American Railway Engineering Associationbut makes compromises for performance and manufacturability. Wheels and track built to Fine: Scale standardsshould be clearly labeled as such to avoid interchange issues. For more information please see Tech Note: TN-1.1.2

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发表于 2013-6-12 19:54:12 |显示全部楼层
                                                                                                                                                Standard Scale models are those which follow the popular standards scales. This Track and Wheel system sacrificessome scale fidelity of the actual wheel tread profile and track work to improve operation and interchangeability. Theseare the scales originally developed by the NMRA in 1940s. Only scales, which are maintained by the NMRATechnical Department, are included. Other popular scale standards (for example No.II) are maintained by MOROP intheir NEM standards (see www.morop.org).
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Note:

                                                                                                                                                


                                           
  • Proto:20.32andFarethesameotherthanflangedepth.
                                           
  •   To ensure compatibility with #1scale track, Fn3 uses LS scale wheel and track geometries as specified in S-3.2 and S-4.2. However the minimum wheel width, maximum flange depth and minimum flange clearance differ between the two scales.
                                  
  • The term LS (Large Scales) is used to refer to range of scales developed to be able to be operated together, typically in an outdoors setting, for example a garden. LS models all use the same wheel and track profiles to facilitate interchange.
                                     
  • On30 uses HO scale wheel and track geometries, as specified in S-3.2 and S-4.2.

                                           
  • OO uses On3 scale wheel and track geometries, as specified in S-3.2 and S-4.2. OO as practiced in the US is historically based on US prototypes at 4mm scale and using19.05mm gage. There exist other gages for 4mm modeling used in the world withrespective societies governing their standards. Principle among the options is the16.2mm and 16.5mm gage OO scale, the 18.2mm gage EM scale, and S4/P4 protoscale having 18.83mm gage. Consult The Double O Gauge Association, The E.M.Gauge Society Ltd., and The Scalefour Society for standards and other information.Manufacturers are encouraged to label both the scale and the gauge for these models.

                                           
  • TTn42 uses N scale wheel and track geometries, as specified in S-3.2 and S-4.2.

                                           

                                
                        
               
                                
                        
               

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发表于 2013-6-12 19:54:25 |显示全部楼层
MODULE STANDARDS 模具标准

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发表于 2013-6-12 19:54:33 |显示全部楼层
MODULE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES 模具-建议

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发表于 2013-6-12 19:56:56 |显示全部楼层
Technical Notes, Reports, Information 技术信息

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发表于 2013-6-18 16:03:57 |显示全部楼层
这个要是翻译成中文就好了!

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发表于 2014-1-5 16:33:06 |显示全部楼层
要是可以下载就好了

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发表于 2014-1-17 20:48:54 |显示全部楼层
可以下载啊,去网站可以下。

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发表于 2016-6-1 11:22:28 |显示全部楼层
還是能看明白 謝謝分享
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